By Christopher Brown – OCDCarCare.com
Paint Defects play a huge role in most automotive detailing businesses.
They dictate almost all factors of paint correction detailing: machine selection, product selection, procedure implementation etc etc. Additionally they affect if Paint Protection Film (Clear Bra) or Ceramic Coatings may or may not be applied effectively. The list of ways which surface defects may impact detailing services and their quality of results can go on endlessly.
Therefore, in order to properly detect, evaluate, and correct flaws in automotive paint, detailers need a clear understanding of the different types of paint defects. It is also important to understand the most likely cause and removal solution for common defects found on most vehicles.
This article explores the types of common detailing paint defects that most professional or enthusiast detailers encounter on their mission to best paint correction results.
Classifications of Common Auto Detailing Paint Defects
In order to effectively discuss common auto detailing paint defects, they must first be classified by type.
The two major paint defect classification types are:
Topical Defects and Contamination:
Paint Defects which Exist ABOVE, or on top of, the painted surface.
Below Surface Paint Defects:
Paint defects which are embedded in, or below, the surface of the clear coat (top coat in single stage paint).
Topical Paint Defects are typically mild in nature and many are simply removed with decontamination processes. These processes include traditional clay bars and synthetic clay mitts or pads. Chemicals may dissolve topical contaminants or loosen them up so slight agitation (abrasion) will remove them entirely.
Below Surface Paint Defects exist within the layers of the paint itself, or even deeper. Chemical decontamination sometimes removes these defects with ease. However, machine paint polishing, otherwise known as paint correction or buffing, is the best means of removal for the vast majority of below surface paint defects.
Machine correction provides: the most consistent, most efficient, and least invasive means of defect removal.
Below surface paint defects require a solid knowledge and experience base for accurate evaluation and removal–depending on their severity. Additionally, other factors of the panel and paint type, play important roles when forming a correction strategy.
Remember to always begin defect removal utilizing the LEAST AGGRESSIVE means (within context) to maximize effectiveness. Automotive surface integrity is the number one goal in all auto detailing.
How to Best Identify and Diagnose Paint Defects
The best way to detect and identify paint defects for their type and severity is to first be able to see them accurately.
Often, proper lighting is an overlooked topic by many detailers. However specific lighting is crucial to optimal quality, efficiency, and profitability of many services. This is even more critical for businesses which offer high end services or work in highly competitive markets with a large concentrations of competitors.
For detailed information on lighting for paint correction, read the OCDCarCare Article Auto Detailing Light Explained for Paint Polishing.
Additionally, the discussion of Lighting for Paint Correction on the Ammo NYC Podcast Episode #38 is an extension of the original article. In this episode Christopher Brown of OCDCarCare Los Angeles discusses Auto Detailing Lighting Essentials with Larry of Ammo NYC and Kevin Brown of Buffdaddy.com.
List of Common Auto Detailing Paint Defects:
Spider Web Swirls
Spider Web Swirl Marks are the common all-direction-type scratches visible on many vehicles on the road. These below surface paint defects mask: color, gloss, and reflective nature of the paint. Because swirl marks cause light to refract into many random angles.
A few main factors typically cause Spider Webbing:
- Lack of regular wash intervals which, causing higher concentrations of topical and bonded contamination to gather.
- Inconsistent or improper cleaning technique of the wash media (mitt or sponge) during or after vehicle washing.
- Improper or inconsistent directional vehicle washing technique
- Washing sections which are too large.
- Using too harsh of wash media for the intended surface.
- Washing of areas of low contamination (top 3/4 of vehicle) with Wash media that have touched the lower sections of the vehicle.
Vehicles washed without a specific and consistent technique have a higher probability for defects to occur. Most commonly, contamination from the lowest quarter of the vehicle, is easily embedded into a wash mitt. If this mitt is then used to wash other areas of the vehicle, the hard particles have a very high probability of creating defects.
Touching paint with materials or tools not safe for automotive purposes will also cause spider web swirl marks. Any media touching painted surfaces should not have the ability to cause defects.
Marring, a below surface paint defect, an abrasion of paint which is not quite considered a “traditional” scratch. This is best demonstrated utilizing a soft finicky jet black paint as an example; say Lexus jet black. If a clay bar ran over the surface with heavy force and very little lubricant, the surface would appear grayish, dull, and looked scuffed. This cloudiness or marring is a defect caused by abrasion, yet isn’t considered an outright “scratch.” Paint correction is the best fix for marring in most cases.
Micro Marring (DA Haze) is a condition slightly different from marring. This is not an actual paint defect, it is a byproduct of paint correction using a Dual Action polisher that creates a series of minute uniform scratches. Micro Marring generally rears its ugly head during the final polishing stage.
With micro marring paint appears hazy, dull, and lifeless even though it is defect free. To fix micro marring, further refinement of the surface is necessary. The key to fixing micro marring is controlling variables to ensure the pad remains clean throughout the final polishing process.
Buffer Trails and Holograms
Buffer Trails & Holograms, are topical paint defects left behind from human hands. These lovely art inspired designs come from a rotary machine moved entirely too fast over the surface. Or a buffer used without much skill behind it, or both.
Body shops and inexpensive local car washes frequently leave these marks when trying to crank out a high volume of vehicles. Buffer trails or holograms are often temporarily covered by a glaze or wax. Most vehicle owners are completely unaware of their existence. However, once the glaze or wax degrades these lovely flames and holograms become vehicle art; on display for all to see. Hiring a skilled detailer with quality processes is the only cure for these “designs.”
RIDS (Random Isolated Deep Scratches)
RIDS (Random Isolated Deep Scratches) are below surface paint defects. These large and deep scratches reveal themselves during the paint correction process. RIDS aren’t always visible during initial vehicle inspections because lighter topical scratches (spider web swirl marks) commonly layer on top of RIDS, camouflaging them.
Commonly, vehicle owners sometimes claim that a detailer has inflict such scratches into their vehicle after completed services. This is not the case, because the removal of the topical scratches has exposed the larger underlying scratches. This misunderstanding is avoided entirely if detailers educate clients about RIDS during paint polishing inspections or before a job is started.
Bird Droppings a.k.a. “Bird Bombs”
ABOVE: Bird Bomb sits, baking into the sun to potentially become the defect below; known as bird etchings.
Bird Droppings “Bombs” are topical paint defects which may cause paint etching. If left long enough bird bombs may morph into below surface paint defects. Bird droppings have the ability to etch paint due to the extreme combination of acidity and protein contained within the droppings.
Bird Drop Etchings
ABOVE: Bird Etchings result when acidic Bird Droppings sit on a vehicle surface.
Bird Etching appears as a subtle recessed blemishes in the surface of the clear coat. The strength of the uric acid and proteins in bird droppings can vary greatly due to what particular bird(s) eat.
In rural areas, bird bombs are often more acidic and aggressive on paint, due to a diet high in seeds and other vegetation low on the Ph scale. Bird bombs, if quickly removed from painted surfaces, can pose little to no harm of etching into clear coat. Many light bird etchings are removed via machine polishing, a.k.a. paint correction. However, severely deep etching are can only be improved by correction, and sometimes may not fully removed.
Light “Type I” Water Spots
Light “Type I” Water Spots: mineral deposits left behind by evaporated water. These topical defects generally indicate “hard water” dried on the surface. Hard water contains a high concentration of mineral solids. Also, if water is introduced to a dirty vehicle, with high levels of contamination, the water can trap the dirt/dust/loose topical contamination, causing light water spots.
The water emulsifies and concentrates surface contaminants into drops which embed into the surface once the water evaporates. Typical Type I water spot removal requires a microfiber cloth and waterless wash, light microfiber towel rubbing, or a traditional wash. Sometimes a water spot removal chemical may be necessary for water with extremely heavy mineral content.
Medium “Type II” Water Spots
Medium “Type II” Water Spots partially penetrate below the surface of the clear coat, slightly etching surfaces. For this reason, they are considered below surface paint defects. Etching appears as a subtle crater-type recessed blemish within the surface of the clear coat.
Some medium water spots barely etch the painted surface, while others may deeply etch the surface. The severity depends on the type and concentration of minerals or chemical contamination present in the water while it dried on the painted surface.
Generally medium water spots can be removed with acidic cleansers. However, some must be removed via machine polishing. Some type II water spots are too deep for chemical removal. It is possible to completely remove these or minimize the appearance of deeper etching with machine polishing which softens the jagged edges of the craters to make them less visible.
Water spots appearing after paint correction or post ceramic coating installation (Phantom Water Spots) are discussed in this article.
Heavy or Severe “Type III” Water Spots
Heavy or Severe “Type III: Water Spots are essentially type II spots, however, they exist on softer single stage paint. Single stage paint is much more porous than modernized catalyzed base coat/clear coat paint. Because of the porous and soft nature of single stage paint; the minerals within resting water penetrate deeper into the paint.
Road Tar occurs when liquefied “tar” launches from tires and onto paint. This topical paint defect or “tar” is actually a buildup of contamination layers on roads.
“Tar” is a combination of hydrocarbons (exhaust) mixed with rubber particles transferred from tire tread onto paved surfaces. Road tar most commonly occurs on lower rocker panels or areas behind wheels.
This is most frequent occurs when weather seasons change, and temperatures first becomes warmer/hot (typically 80°F and above) after winter. Hot days are a ripe circumstance for tar to kick up onto vehicles. It is best to use a solvent to loosen, dissolve, or completely remove road tar particles. A clay bar process may also remove minor amounts of road tar.
Topical Bonded Contamination (not pictured)
Topical Bonded Contamination is a function of regular driving. Dust, pollen, industrial fallout, brake dust are a few types of topical contaminants. Basically any and everything which can collect upon a painted surface may cause contamination. Generally, bonded contamination occurs because regular wash intervals (preferably weekly) aren’t maintained. When this occurs, layers of different contaminants bond to paint then layer on top of one another.
Topical contamination may feel like randomly occurring bumps to the touch in mild concentrations. In heavy concentrations they may feel similar to light grit sand paper.
If the bare hand cannot detect the presence of topical bonded contamination alone, then get some help. Grab a plastic produce bag or a similar THIN bag and put it over your hand. Run the plastic covered hand over the painted surface and note the tactile feel and sound. A smooth surface will allow the hand to glide over easily and with no noise. A contaminated surface will offer a good amount of drag on the hand and the sound of the contaminants against the plastic will be noticeable.
The most common way to remove topical bonded contamination is with a clay bar or synthetic clay substitute. The clay, paired with a lubricating spray, glides across the painted surface, embedding the contamination within itself.
Tree Sap is a topical paint defect, occurs when sap droplets or smaller particles of liquid sap collect on a vehicle surface. No matter the form, tree sap adheres to a surface and hardens, creating a hard topical particulate. When left on surfaces in direct and extended sun exposure, sap can harden and become resin like; leading to etching of the paint.
The best way to avoid sap contamination is to park as far away from coniferous trees (like pine or fir) as possible, if at all! Removal methods depend on how long the sap has sat on the surface. Methods include: washing with warm soapy water wash, or topical decontamination with a clay bar. Chemical based solutions also help to dissolve the sap’s bond to paint. Sometimes, mixing methods is necessary to remove the most stubborn tree sap.
Paint Transfer Marks or Paint Scuffs
Transfer Marks or Paint Scuffs are abrasion defects which result in a transfer of material onto a surface. These are classified as both topical paint defects or below surface defects, depending on their severity. Transfers or scuffs occur when an object collides or brushes against an automotive surface.
Often, the object transferring residue is softer than automotive paint. For this reason, many transfer/scuff marks are accompanied by minimal scratching or none at all. Common types of transfer/scuff marks include paint transfer from vehicle collisions, striking of inanimate objects, or the collision of rubber and softer plastic materials into surfaces.
Paint Overspray is a topical paint defect. Its caused by free floating paint that found a home on a surface. During spray painting, liquid paint is atomized into tiny particles which can carry hundreds of feet through the air from the painting area. No matter how drastic the precautions taken, some amount of overspray will escape the intended area.
Removal of paint overspray depends on the type of paint used and the amount of time it sat on the surface. Some paint removal is as simple as a car washing. More stubborn overspray may require a clay bar. Sometimes a combination of a solvent, used to loosen the paint, requires pairing with the clay bar for final removal.
Bug Guts, Dried Insect Parts, & Lovebugs
Bug Guts or Lovebugs are another topical contaminant with the ability to create below surface paint defects (etching) if not removed ASAP. This is because the remnants of insects contain protein that are VERY harmful to automotive finishes. The larger the insects, the more protein they may contain.
Ask anyone in the southeastern United States, and the mere mention of the words “love bugs” will make them shake their heads or release a sigh in disgust. Suggested removal method: keep a waterless wash solution spray bottle in the vehicle with clean microfiber towels to remove the majority of insect parts ASAP!
Paint Oxidation & Color fading from UV Exposure (non clear coat failure)
Paint Oxidation & Color Fading – These topical paint defects arise from long term exposure the sun’s UV rays and elemental exposure. Married together, oxidation and UV cause paint to appear dull and sometimes, in more extreme cases, a bit whitish or chalky in appearance.
When paint is completely neglected for extended intervals of time, oxidation and fading frequently occur together. While the sun’s UV rays directly strike only the surface of paint, oxidation and color failure might merit classification as a below surface defects, because they require polishing (abrasion) to remove.
To fix, the “dead” top layer of oxidized paint must be removed, in order to expose fresh clear coat. Removal of oxidation causes paint to appear optically clear, restoring the appearance of the paint’s color, clarity, gloss, and reflectivity.
Clear Coat Failure
Clear Coat Failure is a below surface paint defect where paint has oxidized completely or been jeopardized that it completely fails and falls of the surface of the vehicle.
After clear coat, the topical protective layer of paint, completely fails the elements begin to wear on the base (color) layer of paint. Often, the beginning stages of clear coat failure appear as subtly dull or white patches on the horizontal surfaces of a vehicle. As the oxidation process continues, paint eventually starts to crack and flake off; similar to the picture above.
Clear coat failure usually begins on the horizontal areas of vehicles because they are subject to the most intense and longest duration of UV and elemental exposure. Also, these areas are susceptible to the most amount of topical contamination due to a high volume of surface area which collects particles.
The only fix for any stage of clear coat failure is repainting the affected areas.
Dirt Nibs Embedded in Clear Coat
Dirt Nibs are below surface paint defects, which are seen and felt within paint, usually the clear coat layer, as small hard nodules. Dust or contamination during the painting process causes this defect. This occurs if paint booths are improperly prepared and dust and debris are within the immediate painting area. This dust is then stirred up from the directed air flow of the spray gun and pushed beneath the paint.
The removal process for dirt nibs requires an individual removal process, one nib at a time. For this reason, de-nibbing is a tedious process which requires great focus and a steady hand. If nibs occur at or more than 3-4 per square foot, then repainting the panel is the fastest and most cost effective fix.
Paint Checking a.k.a Crow’s Feet
Paint Checking a.k.a Crow’s Feet is a below surface paint defect, containing a concentrated amount of small cracks within the paint. This is actually a paint failure issue. Checking may often appear as many individual cracks adjacent to one another. Other times, crow’s feet cracks form a large network of connected cracks.
In the past laquer paint frequently had this issue, therefore the term ‘laquer checking’ was born. The term ‘checking’ and ‘crow’s feet’ are interchangeable terms.
On modern automobiles, crow’s feet typically indicates a repainted section has been performed in a cheap and quick fashion. Another cause could be poor factory paint and or shoddy prep work or the materials were of poor quality to begin with.
Solvent Pop and Pin Holes
Solvent Pop are below surface defects that occur when painted layers are sprayed too quickly after one another. Pop ranges in appearance from a series of trapped bubbles beneath paint, to tiny pin holes.
Common reasons for solvent pop: a painted layer is NOT given ample time to completely outgas before another layer is sprayed, paint is sprayed on too thickly, or improper thinner/reducer selection for paint booth environmental conditions.
When an additional layer of paint is sprayed on top of an already out-gassing layer, the top layer becomes skin-like. It traps all out-gassing fumes from previously sprayed paint beneath it causing the many bubbles.
Pin Holes are the popped bubbles of solvents which escaped through the top layer of paint. The look like tiny little holes in the surface.
There is no cure for solvent pop; the only solution is to repaint the affected areas.
Final Thoughts on Common Auto Detailing Paint Defects:
More paint defects exist outside this list, constantly throwing detailers curve balls during the paint correction processes.
This list tackles about 90% of the most common auto detailing paint defects which are present on the overwhelming majority of vehicles. Defects such as: paint runs, fisheyes, shrinkage (dieback) have importance yet occur much less frequently. Not to say these aren’t important, but for length considerations they aren’t listed.
Hope this article serves as a useful resource for the detailing community and the paint polishing public.
~keep on buffin.
© Christopher Brown of OCDCarCare Los Angeles – OCDCarCare.com
- OCDCarCare on Ammo NYC Podcast: Auto Detailing Lighting – Ep #38 - 21 November, 2019
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- Ceramic Coating Marketing Lies: BS Hardness Values 9H 10H - 29 May, 2019